Materials: Y Balance Test Kit.


  • To measure upper limb length, the patient stands in an anatomical position while the investigator identified the C7 vertebrae. After C7 was identified, the investigator instructs the subject to raise (abduct) the right limb to shoulder height (90°). The examiner then measures the distance from the C7 spinous process to the most distal tip of the right middle finger (in centimeters) with a tape measure.
  • To perform the YBT-UQ, the subject assumes the starting position with testing hand on the stance platform and the thumb adducted while being aligned behind the red starting line.
  • The starting position for the reach hand was defined by positioning the reach hand on top of the medial reach indicator placed shoulder width from the stance plate.
  • Performance on the test consisted of the subject reaching in the 3 reach directions (Medial, Superolateral, Inferolateral) with the free hand while maintaining a push-up position with feet shoulder width apart.
  • The trial was discarded and repeated if: The subject failed to maintain unilateral stance on the platform (e.g., touched down to the floor with the reach hand or fell off the stance platform), failed to maintain reach hand contact with the reach indicator on the target area while it was in motion (e.g., shoved the reach indicator), used the reach indicator for stance support (e.g., placed fingers or hand on top of the reach indicator), failed to return the reach hand to the starting position under control, or lifted either foot off of the floor.
  • This process is repeated until 3 trials in each direction on each hand are performed.
  • The maximum reach distances are divided by the subject’s upper limb length to normalize each reach distance.
  • The composite reach distance was calculated by averaging the greatest trial in each of the 3 normalized reach distances for an analysis of overall performance on the test.

Video Demonstration from Phil Plisky, PT, DSc, OCS, ATC, CSCS


Screen Shot 2015-01-19 at 11.34.11 AM

Normative Data:

Screen Shot 2015-01-25 at 9.58.19 AM


1. Gorman P, et al. Upper Quarter Y Balance Test: Reliability and Performance Comparison Between Genders in Active Adults. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research. 2012; 26(11): 3043–3048.

2. Westerick R, et al. Exploration of the Y-Balance Test for Assessment of Upper Quarter Closed Kinetic Chain Performance. International Journal of Sports Physical Therapy. 2012; 7(2): 139–147.

3. Taylor JB, Wright AA, Smoliga JM, DePew JT, Hegedus EJ. Upper Extremity Physical Performance Tests in Collegiate Athletes. Journal of Sport Rehabilitation. 2015. [Epub ahead of print]

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